Albuminuria is a pathological condition wherein albumin is present in the urine. It is a type of proteinuria.
The kidneys normally do not filter large molecules into the urine, so albuminuria can be an indicator of damage to the kidneys. It can also occur in patients with long-standing diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes.
Causes of albuminuria can be discriminated between by the amount of protein excreted.
There is some evidence that dietary interventions (to lower red meat intake) can be helpful in lowering albuminuria levels.
Amenorrhoea (BE), amenorrhea (AmE), or amenorrhœa, is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
Angina pectoris, commonly known as angina, is severe chest pain due to ischemia (a lack of blood, thus a lack of oxygen supply) of the heart muscle, generally due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries (the heart’s blood vessels). Coronary artery disease, the main cause of angina, is due to atherosclerosis of the cardiac arteries.
A Carminative, also known as carminativum (plural carminativa), is a herb or preparation that either prevents formation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract or facilitates the expulsion of said gas, thereby combating flatulence. Carminatives have been shown to decrease lower esophageal pressure, which on the other hand increases the risk of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) or ‘heartburn’.
Catarrh is a disorder of inflammation of the mucous membranes. It can result in a thick exudate of mucus and white blood cells caused by the swelling of themucous membranes in the head in response to an infection. It is a symptom usually associated with the common cold and chesty coughs, but can also be found in patients with infections of the adenoids, middle ear, sinus or tonsils. The phlegm produced by catarrh may either discharge or cause a blockage which may become chronic.
Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an inflammatory disorder of the intestine, especially of the colon, that results in severe diarrhea containing mucus and/or blood in the feces with fever and abdominal pain. If left untreated, dysentery can be fatal.
Dyspepsia, also known as upset stomach or indigestion, refers to a condition of impaired digestion. It is a medical condition characterized by chronic or recurrent pain in the upper abdomen, upper abdominal fullness and feeling full earlier than expected when eating. It can be accompanied by bloating, belching, nausea, or heartburn. Dyspepsia is a common problem, and is frequently due togastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or gastritis, but in a small minority may be the first symptom of peptic ulcer disease (an ulcer of the stomach or duodenum) and occasionally cancer.
In medicine, enteritis, from Greek words enteron (Small Intestine) and suffix -itis (Inflammation), refers to inflammation of the small intestine. It is most commonly caused by the ingestion of substances contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms.
Symptoms include abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea, dehydration and fever.
Enuresis refers to an inability to control urination. Use of the term is usually limited to describing individuals old enough to be expected to exercise such control.
Gout (also known as podagra when it involves the big toe) is a medical condition usually characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis—a red, tender, hot, swollen joint. The metatarsal-phalangeal joint at the base of the big toe is the most commonly affected (approximately 50% of cases).
However, it may also present as tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy.
It is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood which crystallize and are deposited in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.
Dietary causes account for about 12% of gout, and include a strong association with the consumption of alcohol, fructose-sweetened drinks, meat, and seafood.
Other triggers include physical trauma and surgery.
The consumption of coffee, vitamin C and dairy products, as well as physical fitness, appear to decrease the risk. This is believed to be partly due to their effect in reducing insulin resistance.
Both lifestyle changes and medications can decrease uric acid levels. Dietary and lifestyle choices that are effective include reducing intake of food such as meat and seafood, consuming adequate vitamin C, limiting alcohol and fructose consumption, and avoiding obesity.
A low-calorie diet in obese men decreased uric acid levels by 100 µmol/L (1.7 mg/dL).
Vitamin C intake of 1,500 mg per day decreases the risk of gout by 45% compared to 250 mg per day.
Coffee, but not tea, consumption is associated with a lower risk of gout.
Gout may be secondary to sleep apnea via the release of purines from oxygen-starved cells. Treatment of apnea can lessen the occurrence of attacks.
Medical terms related to the liver often start in hepato- or hepatic from the Greek word for liver, hēpar.
Hirsutism or frazonism is the excessive hairiness on women in those parts of the body where terminal hair does not normally occur or is minimal – for example, a beard or chest hair.
It refers to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair) and it is therefore primarily of cosmetic and psychological concern.
Hirsutism is a symptom rather than a disease and may be a sign of a more serious medical condition, especially if it develops well after puberty.
The amount and location of the hair is measured by a Ferriman-Gallwey score.
Hirsutism can be caused by either an increased level of androgens, the male hormones, or an oversensitivity of hair follicles to androgens.
Male hormones such as testosterone stimulate hair growth, increase size and intensify the growth and pigmentation of hair.
Other symptoms associated with a high level of male hormones include acne and deepening of the voice and increased muscle mass.
Growing evidence implicates high circulating levels of insulin in women for the development of hirsutism. This theory is speculated to be consistent with the observation that obese (and thus presumably insulin resistant hyperinsulinemic) women are at high risk of becoming hirsute.
Further, treatments that lower insulin levels will lead to a reduction in hirsutism.
It is speculated that insulin, at high enough concentration, stimulates the ovarian theca cells to produce androgens. There may also be an effect of high levels of insulin to activate the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) receptor in those same cells. Again, the result is increased androgen production.
The following may be some of the conditions that may increase a woman’s normally low level of male hormones:
Polycystic ovary syndrome, abbreviated PCOS, (the most common)
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, in turn mostly caused by 21-α hydroxylase deficiency
- Cushing’s disease
- Tumors in the ovaries or adrenal gland (cancer)
- Certain medications
- Insulin resistance
- Stromal Hyperthecosis – in postmenopausal women
- Obesity: As there is peripheral conversion of androgens to estrogen in these patients, this is the same mechanism as polycystic ovary syndrome, PCOS.
- Use of drugs like Tetrahydrogestrinone
The medical term for excessive hair growth that affect both men and women is hypertrichosis.
One method of evaluating hirsutism is the Ferriman-Gallwey score which gives a score based on the amount and location of hair growth on a woman.
Leukorrhea (US) or leucorrhoea (Commonwealth) is a medical term that denotes a thick, whitish or yellowish vaginal discharge.There are many causes of leukorrhea, the usual one being estrogen imbalance. The amount of discharge may increase due to vaginal infection or STDs, and also it may disappear and reappear from time to time, this discharge can keep occurring for years in which case it becomes more yellow and foul-smelling; it is usually a non-pathological symptom secondary to inflammatory conditions of vagina or cervix.
Mastitis is the inflammation of breast tissue. S. aureus is the most common etiological organism responsible, but S. epidermidis and streptococci are occasionally isolated as well.
The popular misconception that mastitis in humans is an infection is highly misleading and in many cases incorrect. Infections play only a minor role in the pathogenesis of both puerperal and nonpuerperal mastitis in humans and many cases of mastitis are completely aseptic under normal hygienic conditions. Infection as primary cause of mastitis is presumed to be more prevalent in veterinary mastitis and poor hygienic conditions.
Breast cancer may coincide with mastitis or develop shortly afterwards. All suspicious symptoms that do not completely disappear within 5 weeks must be investigated.
Pleurisy (also known as pleuritis) is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs. Among other things, infections are the most common cause of pleurisy.
The inflamed pleural layers rub against each other every time the lungs expand to breathe in air. This can cause severe sharp pain with inhalation (also called pleuritic chest pain).
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells. Psoriasis is not contagious. However, psoriasis has been linked to an increased risk of stroke. There are five types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular and erythrodermic. The most common form, plaque psoriasis, is commonly seen as red and white hues of scaly patches appearing on the top first layer of the epidermis (skin). Some patients, though, have no dermatological symptoms.
In medicine, Raynaud’s phenomenon is a vasospastic disorder causing discoloration of the fingers, toes, and occasionally other areas. This condition can also cause nails to become brittle with longitudinal ridges. Named for French physician Maurice Raynaud(1834–1881), the phenomenon is believed to be the result of vasospasms that decrease blood supply to the respective regions. Emotional stress and cold are classic triggers of the phenomenon.
Spermatorrhea is a condition of excessive, accidental ejaculation.
It is a recognized disorder in Traditional Chinese Medicine, in which certain patterns of involuntary ejaculation reflect problems with kidney qi.
In Ayurvedic Medicine, Ashwagandha and Bala are used to treat this vata ailment.
In Western medicine during the nineteenth century, spermatorrhea was regarded as a medical disorder with corrupting and devastating effects on the mind and body. The cure for spermatorrhea was regarded as enforced chastity and avoidance of masturbation, with circumcision sometimes being used as a treatment.
FOR STARTERS….. ;-))
Physiologist, Scientist, Author